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Rabu, 04 Agustus 2010


Water is the predominant chemical component of living organisms. Its unique physical properties, which include the ability to solvate a wide range of organic and inorganic molecules, derive from water’s dipolar structure and exceptional capacity for forming hydrogen bonds. The manner in which water interacts with a solvated biomolecule influences the structure of each. An excellent nucleophile, water is a reactant or product in many metabolic reactions. Water has a slight propensity to dissociate into hydroxide ions and protons. The acidity of aqueous solutions is generally reported using the logarithmic pH scale. Bicarbonate and other buffers normally maintain the pH of extracellular fluid between 7.35 and 7.45. Suspected disturbances of acid-base balance are verified by measuring the pH of arterial blood and the CO2 content of venous blood. Causes of acidosis (blood pH <> 7.45) may, for example, follow vomiting of acidic gastric contents. Regulation of water balance depends upon hypothalamic mechanisms that control thirst, on antidiuretic hormone (ADH), on retention or excretion of water by the kidneys, and on evaporative loss. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which involves the inability to concentrate urine or adjust to subtle changes in extracellular fluid osmolarity, results from the unresponsiveness of renal tubular osmoreceptors to ADH.

A water molecule is an irregular, slightly skewed tetrahedron with oxygen at its center (Figure 2–1). The two hydrogens and the unshared electrons of the remaining two sp3 hybridized orbitals occupy the corners of the tetrahedron. The 105-degree angle between the hydrogens differs slightly from the ideal tetrahedral angle, 109.5 degrees. Ammonia is also tetrahedral, with a 107-degree angle between its hydrogens. Water is a dipole, a molecule with electrical charge distributed asymmetrically about its structure. The strongly electronegative oxygen atom pulls electrons away from the hydrogen nuclei, leaving them with a partial positive charge, while its two unshared electron pairs constitute a region
of local negative charge. Water, a strong dipole, has a high dielectric constant. As described quantitatively by Coulomb’s law, the strength of interaction F between oppositely charged particles is inversely proportionate to the dielectric constant ε of the surrounding medium. The dielectric constant for a vacuum is unity; for hexane it is 1.9; for ethanol it is 24.3; and for water it is 78.5. Water therefore greatly decreases the force of attraction between charged and polar species relative to water-free environments with lower dielectric constants. Its strong dipole and high dielectric constant enable water to dissolve large quantities of charged compounds such as salts.

Water Molecules Form Hydrogen Bonds
An unshielded hydrogen nucleus covalently bound to an electron-withdrawing oxygen or nitrogen atom can interact with an unshared electron pair on another oxygen or nitrogen atom to form a hydrogen bond. Since water molecules contain both of these features, hydrogen bonding favors the self association of water molecules into ordered arrays (Figure 2–2). Hydrogen bonding profoundly influences the physical properties of water and accounts for its exceptionally high viscosity, surface tension, and boiling point. On average, each molecule in liquid water associates through hydrogen bonds with 3.5 others. These bonds are both relatively weak and transient, with a half-life of about one microsecond. Rupture of a hydrogen bond in liquid water requires only about 4.5 kcal/mol, less than 5% of the energy required to rupture a covalent OH bond. Hydrogen bonding enables water to dissolve many organic biomolecules that contain functional groups which can participate in hydrogen bonding. The oxygen atoms of aldehydes, ketones, and amides provide pairs of electrons that can serve as hydrogen acceptors. Alcohols and amines can serve both as hydrogen acceptors and as donors of unshielded hydrogen atoms for formation of hydrogen bonds.


Covalent & Noncovalent Bonds Stabilize Biologic Molecules

The covalent bond is the strongest force that holds molecules together (Table 2–1). Noncovalent forces, while of lesser magnitude, make significant contributions to the structure, stability, and functional competence of macromolecules in living cells. These forces, which can be either attractive or repulsive, involve interactions both within the biomolecule and between it and the water that forms the principal component of the surrounding environment.

Biomolecules Fold to Position Polar & Charged Groups on Their Surfaces Most biomolecules are amphipathic; that is, they possess regions rich in charged or polar functional groups as well as regions with hydrophobic character. Proteins tend to fold with the R-groups of amino acids with hydrophobic side chains in the interior. Amino acids with charged or polar amino acid side chains (eg, arginine, glutamate, serine) generally are present on the surface in contact with water. A similar pattern prevails in a phospholipid bilayer, where the charged head groups of

phosphatidyl serine or phosphatidyl ethanolamine contact water while their hydrophobic fatty acyl side chains cluster together, excluding water. This pattern maximizes the opportunities for the formation of energetically favorable charge-dipole, dipole-dipole, and hydrogen bonding interactions between polar groups on the biomolecule and water. It also minimizes energetically unfavorable contact between water and hydrophobic groups.

1 komentar:

  1. Wadoww berat..berat..klo yg kyk gini b zn ngarti.hahaha


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